Home / General provisions / Type of package
The types of packing require by ITN54750 standard are:
- Crates with a supporting and NON supporting base having a timber structure and phenolic plywood panelling
- Cages with supporting base and NOT timber
- Special packing for dangerous goods
- Wooden pallets
- Cardboard boxes
- Beams, ties, lathing
- Wooden saddles
Wooden and cardboard crates
Wooden and plywood crates with supporting base
A case with a supporting base is defined as packing whose base is used to guarantee the physical and chemical protection and the lifting of the packing. It should also meet the general requirement as per 2.3, the dimensions defined in the ITN54750.00 and the characteristics of the materials used as per point 2.3.2. This type of crate is used for items not equipped with their own base and which allows them to be lifted or moved. The structure of the crate must allow movement by forklift truck and therefore they must be fitted with shims or under-beams for the forks to run perpendicular to the longest side. The board at the bottom should always be simply juxtaposed. The bottom should not be covered so as to allow ventilation and particularly the rapid removal of any water that penetrates inside the crate. For packages whose weight exceeds 15,000 Kg, the proposed packing should comply with the general constructive characteristics mentioned in this specification and it should be developed in consultation with the packing supplier. The walls of the case a remade by plywood with an internal pine frame, the nature of the plywood allows the crate to be sealed and therefore does not require to the use of an internal layer of tarpaper. Inside the crate the material should always be covered by 250 micron, anti UV “milky white” type polyethylene shrink-wrap. Where not possible, an anti UV polyethylene guard should be used.
Load bearing plywood crates
a) Base beams
It is vital to use crates fitted with under beams , running parallel to the longitudinal axis. Their section and distance should be based on the constructive, dimensional and weighted characteristics of the manufactured item.
b) Under beams
Underneath the longitudinal beams, lower beams should be placed in a transverse direction that can be attached to the lifting ropes and to enable handling using a forklift truck .
c) Bottom: floor and header beams
The bottom boards should be nailed to the base beams and should have a minimum spacing of 2.5 cm. They can be reinforced with header beams placed at the end of the longitudinal beams and the horizontal beams at the points of greatest stress at the base. The header beams should be bolted to the cross beams if of a greater thickness than 6 cm.
Bottom of the wooden and plywood cases with load bearing base
||Base board||Head beam||Bottom beams||Feet|
d) Sides and tops
The sides and tops are made with an internal structure (sheet) with fitting and minimum crossbars and uprights as shown in table 1, nailed to the plywood covering. The nature of the plywood allows the crate to be sealed and therefore does not require to the use of an internal layer of tarpaper. It also gives the sheet resistance to diagonal stresses, excluding the need to make and diagonal strengthening.
The covering should be made with plywood panels having a minimum thickness as shown in table.
e) Auxiliary fittings
These are fitted internally in a vertical direction and whose function is to strengthen the sides and to support the withstanding of the loads transmitted from the cover through its own support elements. The section should take account of the height of the crate as well as the maximum, admissible overlapping.
This should resist, together with the underlying stiffening beams (see table 2), the stipulated overlapping load and should guarantee a level of protection to the type of crate selected. The cover should be made from a double layer of plywood (see figure 8) with a minimum thickness of 1cm with the laying over of a sheet of polyethylene. This should hang over the edge of the cover by some 10.15 cm. The panels should be overlapped with staggered joints. The nailing should be made close to the boards of the frame so that there is no leaking and to guarantee waterproofing. After the closing of the crate, the polyethylene that overlaps the edge of the cover should be stapled to the sides of the crate.
Cover of the wooden and plywood crate
|Internal structure (Uprights)
||Internal structure (Crossbar)||Plywood covering
||Tar paper||Polyethylene sheet||Plywood covering|
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Road Transport: Crates with a supporting base
Sea Transport: Crates with a supporting base
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Road Transport: Crate with supporting base with barrier bag
Sea Transport: Crate with supporting base with barrier bag
Wooden and plywood crates with non-supporting base
A non-supporting base is defined as any packing whose base should only provide physical and chemical protection. This type of crate is used for items having their own base and which allows them to be lifted and/or moved. The constructive characteristics of the packing should comply with the sizes specified in ITN54750.00 and the requirements described under points 2.3.1; 2.3.2; 188.8.131.52 of this specification.
An exception to what is stated above is the base having the characteristics described below. Bottom beams running parallel to the longitudinal axis of a maximum section of 20cm x 6cm with a minimum wheelbase of 90 cm to 100 cm ad a minimum number of 3 per base. In the planning of the bottom beams and the constructing of the base, it should be borne in mind that this should guarantee a support over a minimum transport pallet having a width of 2.5 m and without exceeding the structure of the base itself. The bottom boards should be nailed to the bottom beams and should have a minimum thickness of 2.5 cm.
The base should be solidly fixed with ties to the metallic structure of the machine. The following conditions should also be met: the access opening to the cleats or lifting plates should be sealed with laminate so as to guarantee proper access to them for the moving of the skids.
Movement should only take place using the cleats or lifting plates provided which are integral parts of the base of the machine and/or auxiliaries. The outside of the crate should always show the lifting sketch (Shipping Sketch). Wooden and plywood crates with a non-supportive base are not resistant to overlapping loads and, as such shall be marked with the ISO780 symbol indicating that they are NOT to be overlapped. Inside the crate the material should always be covered by 250 micron, anti UV “milky white” type polyethylene shrink-wrap. Where not possible, an anti UV polyethylene guard should be used.
Plywood and wooden crate with non load-bearing base
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Road Transport: Crates with non load-bearing base
Sea Transport:Crates with non load-bearing base
These are essentially used as the pre-packing or packing of loose parts. The sides and the cover should be made from (phenolic) plywood made up a minimum or five layers, with plywood baseboards and under-beams for lifting. The angles of the case are joined by pre-treated or varnished metallic angles fixed to the case by riveting. Also for this type of case, when it is used as final packing, it should have a double cover.
Prefabricated plywood crate (commercial crate)
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Road Transport: Commercial crates
Sea Transport: Commercial crates
Cages with supporting base
A cage with a supporting base is defined as packing deprived of continuous covering and which is to itself guarantee physical and chemical protection. For wooden crates the criteria to be adopted are those set out for plywood crates in paragraph 2.4.1. Cages are to be constructed with boards having an overall width of between 12 and 20 cm and with a maximum interval between board and board than does not exceed its width.
Inside the crate the material should always be covered by 250 micron, anti UV “milky white” type polyethylene shrink-wrap. Where not possible, an anti UV polyethylene guard should be used. (If multiple sheets are used, place them so that they overlap on the edges; as an example, consider how tiles are arranged on a roof).
For safety reasons, the cages shall NOT exceed 15,000 Kg in weight. The cage shall be reinforced with angle brackets.
Cage with load-bearing base
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Road Transport: Cage
Sea Transport: Cage
Wooden cages with not supporting base (ONLY Vibo AirCoolers)
A cage with non-supporting base is defined as any packing lacking continuous covering which is to provide sole physical and chemical protection. The constructive characteristics of the packing should comply with the sizes specified in ITN54750.00 and the requirements described under points 2.3.1; 2.3.2; 2.4.2 of this specification.
An exception to what is stated above is the base with the characteristics described below: the bottom boards shall be nailed to the bottom beams; beams and bottom boards should have a minimum thickness of 2.5 cm; uprights and crossbars, heads and covers should have a minimum thickness of 2.5 cm.
The following conditions should also be respected: it should only be moved by means of the lifting plates provided which are integral parts of the AirCoolers.
The outside of the crate should always show the lifting sketch (Shipping Sketch) The overlapping referred to under point 2.3.1 is complied with by placing below cover support beams directly on the sheet of the AirCooler instead of on the cage reinforcement structure.
Cage in wood with non-supporting base (Only for Vibo AirCoolers)
Special packages (for dangerous goods)
Products classified as dangerous for transporting according to the MSDS -Materials Safety Data Sheet - (e.g. pressurised containers or cylinders, paints, electrolytes, batteries, sealants, etc.) shall be packaged and labelled according to the IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods)- ADR (Accord Dangerous Route)-IATA (International Air Transport Association) –RID (regulations concerning the international transporting of dangerous goods by rail) as well as for shipment by road, sea, air and rail. To this end, the products shall be packaged in accredited containers. A coloured danger label shall be placed on the container based on the class to which the substance belongs according to the MSDS together with all information required under the various international regulations that vary according to the type of transport (e.g.. UN No., Proper Shipping Name, etc.).
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Road transport: Multi-packing
Sea Transport: Multi-packing
Pallets, when needed, must always be of the non-returnable type and it is acceptable to use poplar wood. For standard pallets, use the EUR-EPAL type in wood with dimensions of 80x120x14cm and standard capacity (max. 1,500Kg). For non-standard requirements, the dimensions should be agreed with GE Oil & Gas on a case-by-case basis.
The materials must be completely contained within the inside of the pallet perimeter and must be suitably fastened using fasteners and consolidated between them.
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Road Transport: Pallet
Sea transport: Pallet
The boxes used are of normal type corrugated cardboard. This cardboard may have double walls and its thickness must not be less than 0.5cm. The cardboard must be closed using staples, tape and metallic fastenings or synthetic materials. The weight of the material to be packaged in cardboard must not exceed 25 kg.
Beams are made with bar connectors in a “U” shape connected by threaded bars placed under tension by tightening the nuts up to 5,000 kg of maximum weight per package. The beam material should be separated through the placing of wooden beams whose aim is to provide a regular shape to the grouping and allows it to be properly stored. The connectors (beams and ties) should be placed 1 m from the end of the beam at a maximum distance of 3m one from the other.
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Road Transport: Fastenres
Sea Transport: Fastenres
Reel external protection
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Road Transport: Reel external protection
Sea Tansport: Reel external protection
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Road Transport: Saddle
Packing with Thermo Shrinking
This specification defines the type, physical, qualitative and constructive characteristics of the packages made using Thermo shrinking for GE Oil & Gas products.
This specification governs the manufactured items made for any on behalf of GE Oil & Gas and shall be applied when stipulated by the ITN54750.00
General provisions for thermo shrinking
Minimum supply requirements
- Min/max recommended temperature to which the packages can be subjected: -20°C / +50°C*
- Maximum longitudinal acceleration: 1.5 g
- Maximum transverse acceleration: 0.3 g
- Maximum vertical acceleration: 0.5 g
Characteristics of the thermo shrinking
The thermo shrinking should comply with the following characteristics and follow the process described. The thermo shrinking polyethylene sheet to be used is a white sheet having a minimum thickness of 250 micron with a 12-month resistance to UV rays.
For the use of this type of package, it is very important to ensure the preservation of the manufacturer items, both internal and external. Before placing over the manufactured items, all corners than come into contact with the sheet must be protected with a soft plastics material (cardboard and derivatives are
not allowed). After thermo shrinking the sheet it should be covered with a high resistance, HD polyethylene, UV stabilised and water repellent mesh of a maximum knit diameter of 13x13cm and minimum wire diameter of approximately 2mm and fastened with an appropriate rope certified according to UNI EN1263.1 .
For skids, machines, auxiliary bases and power units a hinged door should be provided with the following minimum dimensions: width 70cm and height 110cm. The door should be placed in an area that enables internal access to the item for inspection. An envelope containing a repair kit should also be placed inside the envelope containing a repair kit with a minimum of 3 m2 of thermo shrinking and a role of adhesive tape compatible with the thermo shrinking in question.
Plastic anti-condensation ventilation grills should be provided for all materials packaged using thermo shrinking (ventilation grills), divided as follows:
- 4 ventilators for a volume of between 50 to 149 m3
- 6 ventilators for volumes of 150 to 350 m3
- 10 ventilators for volumes of above 350 m3
The support plate for the bases should be suitably protected by placing plywood sheets solidly fastened to them ad by placing between the plate and the plywood, protective sheets of wax paper. For items that do not have their own base, supports/saddles made from wood, plastic or metal shall be provided that allow, after being fixed earth insulation. The supplier shall indicate the lifting points to be used for any subsequent moving.
The external marking if the shipment in accordance with ITN54750.00, shall be carried out using A3 format plastic sheets and fastening to the sheet with suitable tape compatible with the thermo shrinking. Any international signage should be made on the thermo shrinking using black paint.
This specification defines the type, the physical, qualitative and constructive characteristics of the multi-packing (cage + thermo shrinking) for GE Oil & Gas products. The main function of the packing in question is that of providing mechanical protection for the materials from internal and external stresses during loading/unloading, transporting and storage by preventing damages due to shocks, weight from overlapping, stacking, inertia forces and acceleration.
These specifications govern manufactured items made for, or on behalf of GE Oil & Gas and must be applied whenever required by the ITN54750.00.
General provisions for multi-packing (cage + thermo shrinking)
Min/max recommended temperatures to which the packing can be exposed: -20°C / +50°C *. Longitudinal acceleration max: 1.5 g Maximum transverse acceleration: 0.3 g
Maximum vertical acceleration: 0.5g Stackable packing: 500 Kg/m2 (surface cover
* For temperatures below –20°C it is necessary to use rivets and reinforcement type brackets, plates, angles and stainless steel tie rods.
With very tall materials with a reduced base that cannot be placed horizontally, it is important to make packing whose length or width is at least equal to half the height of the said package (Length or Width >= Height/2). The profile of the machine footprint, or of special or auxiliary equipment (heat exchangers, pressure vessels, pipes, reducers, valves, etc) should have a distance from the walls and cover rafters of between 2 cm and 5 cm.
All packing should be subject to the treatments, controls, markings and certifications stipulated by the phytosanitary laws in force in the countries of destination.
Characteristics of the materials recommended for the packing
All the materials quoted in paragraph 2.4 shall comply with the characteristics described in the ITN54750.01 “Provisions for final packing in wood, cardboard and containers” and in the ITN54750.02 “General provisions for final packing with thermo shrinking”
Making multi-packing (Cage + Thermo shrinking)
Multi-packing (Cage + Thermo shrinkink) is defined as that type of packing that enables insulation of the materials to be guaranteed from contaminating external agents (animal and vegetal). The packages should be made only with the cage type and should comply with the constructive principles set out under paragraphs 2.3; 184.108.40.206 and 2 4.2.2. of the ITN54750.01 (“Provisions for final packing in wood, cardboard and containers”.
Before starting the packing, all materials should be carefully cleaned. Pre-packaged cardboard items are not accepted but sachets and plastic boxes can be used. All the material should be inserted in a moisture bag and secured inside using nylon bands. The corners can be protected using bubble wrap sheets or other materials excluding paper, foam or others derived from wood or paper. It is permitted to use polyethylene covered wooden fastenings in the moisture bag for prevent the humidity contained in the wood from damaging the materials within the package.
Once completed, the packing shall be completed wrapped in thermo shrinking polyethylene having the characteristics shown in the ITN54750.02 “General provisions for final wrapping with thermo shrinking”. Before moving the packing covered in thermo shrinking polyethylene it should be placed, in relation to the under-beams of the wooden boards having a minimum thickness of 3 cm, which are fixed to the cage using nylon bands.
These additional coatings are provided to prevent both damage being occasioned to the thermo shrinking and its contamination. They can be removed when the package is ready to be shipped. To protect the thermo shrinking in the area of the lifting with the forklift, plastic corners are placed on the packages at the points they come into contact with the lifting machine.
The wood for the fixtures to be used within the moisture bag, as well as the wood for the feet should have undergone the same treatment as the cage. For this type of package the use of plywood or OSB is not permitted.
The marking should comply with the general requirements of the ITN54750.00. It should also be placed in two places: externally on the cage and on the outside of the thermo shrinking. On this latter, the marking should be made using plastic label and should be fixed to the cage using staples sealed with adhesive tape compatible with the thermo shrinking.
MULTI-PACKING (Cage + Thermo shrinking
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Road Transport: Mesh for protection
Sea Transport: Mesh for protection
Metallic Type ISO international containers (Container)
When requested standard international ISO type containers can be used. These have not been included in the type of packing indicated in paragraph 2.3 given that they do not constitute a method of industrial packing but only indicate a grouping of the packages for shipment. The containers used can be of the following type:
- Box 20’
- Box 40’
- Flat rack 20’
- Flat rack 40’
- Open top 20’
- Open top 40’